用英语表达”以现金/信用卡支付”时,Pay后面接什么介词?


在美式口语中,如果要表达“用…方式支付”,可以通过pay in, pay with, pay by, 或直接用pay来表达。可是,选项这么多,如何区别?到底哪种说法最地道呢?Will的美语课对常见的表达方式做了一个总结,方便大家参考、使用。具体如下:(1)用现金支付,可以说:pay cash,或pay in cash,pay with cash。(2)用信用卡支付,可以说:pay by credit card,或者pay with a credit card(注意不要漏掉”a”)。参考英文例句:You can order online, and then pay with cash at your store within 48 hours.(你可以先在网上下单,之后48小时内到店用现金支付。)  It takes less than 60 seconds to pay your bill with cash at a 7-Eleven in your neighborhood.(在你家附近的7-Eleven便利店,你只需花60秒不到的时间,就可以用现金完成还款。)Can I pay by credit card?(我能用信用卡支付么?)Many of our local businesses will give a discount if you pay in cash.(如果你以现金支付,我们许多本地商家都会提供价格优惠。)

参考链接:

https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/229884/may-i-pay-in-cash-or-just-cash-without-in

https://www.italki.com/question/245793

https://www.quora.com/If-pay-in-cash-is-correct-what-about-pay-by-cash

Happy的比较级、最高级到底是什么?


通常而言,一个形容词如果由两个或以上音节构成(含有2个或以上元音),那么其比较级是在前面加more,最高级则是加the most。例如:more useful, more important, the most difficult, the most distant。但是对于部分以字母”y”结尾的形容词而言,这个规则却存在例外。比如:happy,其比较级和最高级,可以是:more happy, the most happy。也可以是:happier, the happiest。而happier, the happiest更为常见。类似的词还有:pretty,其比较级和最高级往往用prettier, prettiest。事实上,对于一些特定单词的比较级、最高级,英语世界里也是众说纷纭。Quora上甚至有激进观点认为,英语中的比较级、最高级的构造并无一定之规(”There is no such rule”, 见参考链接(5))。Will的建议是,可以用本文开头提及的音节规则作为指导,对于一些例外情况,平时应多加关注整理,更多地去遵循当前的主流习惯用法。

参考链接:

(1) http://www.english-test.net/forum/ftopic65440.html

(2) https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/happy

(3) http://www.onestopenglish.com/methodology/ask-the-experts/grammar-questions/grammar-two-syllable-comparatives/146356.article

(4) Comparative Forms of Adjectives

(5) https://www.quora.com/Which-is-correct-prettier-or-more-pretty

“Ended, ending”表示”截至…时间点”的用法

End,作为动词表示“结束”。如果在单词末加上”ed”,或”ing”,并和一个时间点连用,都可以用来表示“截至….日期”。这种用法在正式的书面文件、财务报告中较为常见。参考例句:Lending Club (NYSE:LC), America’s largest online marketplace connecting borrowers and investors, today announced financial results for the quarter ended March 31, 2017 and provided guidance for the second quarter and full year 2017。注意这段中的“today announced financial results for the quarter ended March 31”,意思为:今日公布了截至3月31日当季的财务结果。再如:Below is the Quarterly Financial Report for period ending June 30, 2012.(以下为截至2012年6月30日的季度财务报告。)值得一提的是,对于ended, ending,有观点认为二者存在细微的用法差别,具体可见参考链接(1), (2),这里不再详述。

参考链接:

(1) https://www.grammarly.com/answers/questions/6079-fiscal-year-ended-vs-fiscal-year-ending/

(2) http://www.topix.com/forum/business/accounting/TQK669CD89PRPHRIA/fiscal-year-ended-vs-fiscal-year-ending

关于aged的词性、意思及用法

在英文中,Age常用作名词,表示“年龄”。但是,aged也可以用来表示一个人的年龄是多少岁,其词性为形容词(adjective)。Aged的英文解释为:having the age of…(年龄为…)。参考几个例句:Aged 18, he had no idea what would happen next.(18岁的他,完全不知道后面会发生什么。)Some of the highest STD rates are among youth aged 20 to 24.(性病在20-24岁间的年轻人中占比最高。)John Doe, aged 52, was arrested at the scene.(某男,年龄52岁,被现场逮捕。)值得一提的是,age,如果用在括号中,或用于名词后,用逗号(comma)分隔,也可以表示”年龄为…岁”。如:seniors (age 65 and over); children (age 5 and under)。

参考链接:

http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/american/aged_1

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/aged

https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/230849/aged-vs-aging-to-describe-someones-age

https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/58629/what-is-the-difference-between-aged-and-age

“援引、引述”,用英文如何表达?

“援引、引述”,在英文中有两个接近的说法,一个是cite,另一个则是quote。若要深究的话,二者有一定的区别。通常而言,Cite,指“转述”,可以用自己的话(paraphrase),不一定是逐字逐句引用原文;而quote,则是直接引用原话,一字不差(word for word; verbatim)。参考这两个例句:The president responded, and I’m quoting here, “That’s exactly what I want.” (总统回应道,下面是我引用的原话,“这正是我想要的。”)Buffett owned about 81 million shares of IBM at the end of 2016 and sold about a third in the first and second quarters of 2017, CNBC reported, citing Buffett.(2016年底,巴菲特持有8100万股IBM股票,在2017年一、二季度抛售了1/3的持股,CNBC报道,援引巴菲特。)此外,在正式的文章中(如学术性论文、研究报告),常常会引用一些权威的数据或观点,而这种应用,叫做cite,或citation。

参考链接:

https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-quotation-and-citation

https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/58551/quoting-vs-citing