Software的复数形式是什么?


Software是一个比较特殊的单词,有些类似于water,paper等,属于不可数名词(uncountable noun)。它复数形式依旧是software,即不用做任何变化,也无需在词尾添加s。在使用时,需注意a software这样的说法是不正确的。如果要表达”一款软件”,你可以说a piece of software。或者用program来替代software,program是可数名词。另外,如果software用来修饰名词,即起到形容词的作用时,可以在前面加a。比如:She works as a software engineer for Tesla. (她是特斯拉的一名软件工程师。)注意这里的a,是修饰programmer的。参考例句:The company is known for making a wide variety of anti-virus software.(该公司以生产各类不同的防病毒软件而闻名。)

参考链接:

https://forum.wordreference.com/threads/software-un-countable.2006132/

https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=1006022400979

关于should have done(本应该做)的用法…


当我们需要表达某人本应该做某事,但实际上却没有做时,我们在中文里说:”你本该…” 。英文里的对应说法是:you should have (done)。注意这里的should,在英语语法中叫情态动词(modal verb),而should have,则是情态动词的过去式(past modals)。Should have后面要接动词的过去分词。我们看个英语例句:I should have listened to you, Mom.(我本该听您的话,妈妈。) You should have arrived earlier.(你本该早点儿到的。)

如果要表达“你本不该”,则使用should not have,或shouldn’t have。例如:You shouldn’t have told her about us.(你本不该告诉她我俩的事儿。)I’m really sorry. I shouldn’t have yelled at you.(真的很抱歉,我不该冲你大叫大嚷的。)你可能也见到过should have never的用法,它同样表示“本来绝不该”,例如:This kid should have NEVER gone there in the first place.(这孩子当初根本就不该去那个地方。)

在美式口语中,should have,往往被简化为should’ve或shoulda。而在非正式的书写中,should have常被写成should of。注意这些都并非规范的做法,在书面/正式英语中应当避免。

延伸阅读:

Chicago P.D.经典台词: You saved my life. I would’ve been dead at 15 if you hadn’t taken me in…

参考链接:

Understanding and Using Modal Verbs

Past Modals: Should Have, Could Have, Would Have

Past Modal Verbs in the Passive Voice

1st还是the 1st?

我们知道1st代表first的意思,那么在使用1st的时候,是否还需要在前面加定冠词(definite article)the呢?答案是,需要加the。因为1st并不含有the(见参考链接(1)),所以the 1st才相当于the first。看两个例句:UAS deployed for the 1st time to monitor NY State Fair traffic (PoliceOne),纽约州集市首次采用无人机监控人流;The 1st Amendment guarantees a right to ‘peaceably’ assemble (Latimes). 第一修正案明确了公民的和平集会权利。以此类推,2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th…ect,前面都是需要加the的。当然,如果你只需要表达first,而非the first,就无需加the。例如:I’m really psyched ’cause this is my 1st time here.

参考链接:

(1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/first

英语里时间、日期、星期、月份等前的介词(at, on, in)是否可以省略?何时省略?

英语中的时间(time),日期(date)、星期(day)、月份(month)、年份(year)等出现在句子中时,前面往往需要加介词。其通常规则如下:at+time,on+date/day、in+month/year。但有时候,我们也会见到这些时间名词的前面不出现介词的情形,那么这些介词究竟能否省略呢?又该何时省略呢?

答案是肯定的。某些情况下,的确不用加介词。其规则为:当这类时间名词前出现了last, next, every, this等词汇时,不用添加at, on, in等介词。我们看几个例句: I came back from NYC last April. (注意并非in last April) The movie will be in theater next Tuesday.(注意无需使用on next Tuesday)John goes back to visit his family every Christmas.(不用说in every Christmas)Our sales department will have a meeting this evening.(注意不是in this evening)。

参考链接:

https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/prepositions-at-in-on-time.htm

Have no choice but后面接什么? to do, do, 还是doing?

Have no choice but,是一个常用的英语固定短语,其意思是:除了…外别无选择。那么have no choice but后面是接动词原形,不定式,还是现在分词呢?答案是,but后面一般应该接不定式:but to do…。参考几个英文例句:They had no choice but to agree to what he suggested.(除了同意他的建议外,他们别无选择)。Trump: ‘We have no choice’ but to build up our military(特朗普:除了加强我们的军事力量外,“我们别无选择”。)I Have No Choice but to Keep Looking(除了继续搜寻外,我别无选择)。注意除了have no choice but,你也可以使用have little choice but(这里的little choice,表示”没什么选择余地”)来表达相同的意思,二者的语法构造也完全一致。

延伸阅读:

Can’t help doing和can’t help but do的区别…

参考链接:

https://www.collinsdictionary.com/us/dictionary/english/have-no-choice-have-little-choice